Biosphere as a planetary organization of life

Biosphere as planetary organization of life

In recent years, the flow of publications on environmental growing like an avalanche. But the content of the majority of popular scientific works depressing as reduced mainly to the statement of facts of environmental degradation and the definition of requirements for improving it. This fact once again shows how important it is present environmental education and how utopian idea of ??turning all the polls in spetsialistovekologov. Particularly striking ignorance of the scale of the elementary concepts of the interaction between man and the biosphere. It is for this reason that "globalnoekologicheskuyu part" we begin with an analysis of the biosphere as a planetary organization of life.

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Living matter of biosphere and its functions

In any interpretation of the concept "biosphere" its main components is living matter. This thesis is not trivial, though, because the biomass of living matter is only about 0.0001% by weight of the biosphere, which includes in its membership, as we know, all the organic matter of biogenic origin and inert substance other areas occupied by the biosphere. The thing is that the role of living matter in the biosphere is unique.

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Beyond the biosphere

In accordance with traditional science concepts Biosphere covers part of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and the upper part of the lithosphere, which are interconnected by complex biogeochemical cycles of matter and energy migration (Vernadsky - biogenic migration of atoms). It is three-dimensional and geoistorichna, so when we're talking about within it, we have in mind the limits of physical conditions for the existence of living organisms at a specific time (by the way, some parts of the earth's surface life may be temporarily absent).

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Global biogeochemical cycling of elements

As you know, all of the structural components of the biosphere is closely interconnected complex biogeochemical cycles of matter and energy migration. Exchange and interaction processes take place at different levels: between geospheres (atmo, hydro, lithosphere), between natural areas, separate landscapes, their morphological parts, and so on. D. However prevails everywhere nationwide general process of exchange of matter and energy, the process of generating the phenomena of a different scale - from atomic to planetary. Many elements, having a chain of biological and chemical transformations, returning in the same chemical compounds in which they were at the initial moment. In this case, the main driving force in the functioning of both global and small (and local) cycles, are living organisms themselves.

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Death of biosphere

The most common scenario is the death of the terrestrial biosphere is connected, of course, with the Sun. It was shining for about 5 billion years, every second emits a huge amount of energy. As a result of the collapse of the fusion of hydrogen nuclei per 1 cm2 comes 1.38 kWh of energy. This value is called the solar constant, is quite stable: it is very small fluctuations are associated with the magnitude of the solar "spots", ie. E. With the release of superheated mass of the solar energy in the photosphere (the so-called "prominences"). During the "glow" Sun has spent about half of its hydrogen reserves, which means that it is approximately in the middle of his career.

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Biogeochemical cycles of individual elements

As is known, the three chemical elements - oxygen, carbon and hydrogen - 98% of the total mass of living matter, wherein the first of them represents 70, the second - 18, and the third - 10%. Unlike most of the oxygen and hydrogen present in the body in the form of an aqueous substance (a solvent and a medium for biochemical reactions), carbon is essentially structure-forming component. In science, a well-known ability to easily form a carbon carbon - carbon bonds, to make the polymer chains and rings, serve as the basis for a variety of organic compounds.

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