Global biogeochemical cycling of elements

As you know, all of the structural components of the biosphere is closely interconnected complex biogeochemical cycles of matter and energy migration. Exchange and interaction processes take place at different levels: between geospheres (atmo, hydro, lithosphere), between natural areas, separate landscapes, their morphological parts, and so on. D. However prevails everywhere nationwide general process of exchange of matter and energy, the process of generating the phenomena of a different scale - from atomic to planetary. Many elements, having a chain of biological and chemical transformations, returning in the same chemical compounds in which they were at the initial moment. In this case, the main driving force in the functioning of both global and small (and local) cycles, are living organisms themselves.
The role of biogeochemical cycles in the development of the biosphere is extremely high, as they provide a repetition of the same organic shapes with limited starting material involved in the cycle. Humanity can only be amazed at how wisely nature works, which itself suggests a "ne'er-do-Homo sapiens *, how to organize the so-called non-waste production. Note, however, that in nature there are no fully closed cycles: any of them at the same time will close and open. An elementary example of a partial cycle is water, which evaporates from the ocean surface, partly again gets there.
Between individual small circulations are complex interrelationships that ultimately leads to a constant redistribution of matter and energy between them to eliminate a kind of asymmetric phenomena in the development cycles. Thus, in the lithosphere in excess were able to bound oxygen, and silicon in the atmosphere in the free state - nitrogen and oxygen in the biosphere - hydrogen, oxygen and carbon. One should also note that most of the carbon is concentrated in the sedimentary rocks of the lithosphere, where carbonates have accumulated the bulk of the carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere from volcanic eruptions.
We should not forget that between the cosmos and the earth there is a close relationship, which from a certain degree of conditionality should be considered as part of the global cycle (because, as already noted, it is not closed). From space on our planet misses the radiant energy (solar and cosmic rays), the corpuscles of the Sun and other stars, meteor dust, and so on. D. Particularly important is the role of solar energy. In turn, the Earth gives back some of the energy dissipates into space, and so on hydrogen. D.
Many scientists, starting with VI Vernadsky, considering the global biogeochemical cycling of elements in nature as one of the most important factors in maintaining a dynamic equilibrium in the nature, distinguished in the process of evolution of two stages: ancient and modern. There is reason to believe that an ancient cycle stage was different, however, because of the lack of many unknown (element names, their mass, energy, and so on. Etc..) To simulate cycles of past geological eras ("old biosphere") is almost impossible.
It should be added that the bulk of living matter are C, O, H, N, the main sources of power plants are SOG, SHO and other minerals. Given the importance of the biosphere carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, as well as the specific role of phosphorus, a brief look at their global cycles, known as "private" or "small." (There are also local circuits that are associated with individual landscapes.)