Optimum population and population policy

Development in recent years, not only search, but also the normative population projections gave rise to the concept of "population optimum", which is a mode of reproduction, where the demographic situation might stabilize, falling into relative equilibrium and in the global and regional scales. This is a simple reproduction of the population requires about three children per woman of childbearing age (18-49 years), capable of having children (according to the statistics, their slightly more than 9/10 of the total number of women of the age).
Some authors replacement rate calculate more carefully, from 2.52 to 2.70 on average child per woman. This, of course, does not mean that every woman of child-bearing age to give birth to three children: the optimum population not only regionally, but also locally should be differentiated. Something some women cannot or does not want to have children. In terms of urbanization and employment in social production, the overwhelming majority of women prefer to be limited to odnimdvuma children.
A comprehensive population policy is a system of various measures taken by a State to solve specific problems. It may be, first, the economic stimulus measures of fertility, family benefits, a different sort of incentive payments, benefits to large families and newlyweds in the allocation of housing, expansion of the network of pre-school institutions, and so on.
Secondly, the administrativnopravovye measures — to change the age at marriage, the expansion of property rights of mothers and children from the breakdown of families, the prohibition of abortion. By the way, the specific demographic situation in individual countries, the attitude of some Governments and religious organizations on abortion is zestkozapretitel?noj. As a result, an increasing number of clandestine abortions and the deaths of women, there are various excesses after the birth of unwanted children. On the other hand, one can hardly put up with the fact that in the world every year by tens of millions of abortions. Such method of family planning is not civilized.
Vtret?ih, improving the promotion of, say, the transition of fertility from spontaneous to the conscious, the honor and the importance of motherhood and fatherhood, sex education among young people, etc. of particular importance is the education of believers, can have the greatest impact on the Church hierarchy and induce it to change its position.
Finally, vcetvertyh, expansion of production is relatively simple to use, cheap and widely available contraception. Especially need them underdeveloped countries, where grinding poverty does not allow for their release.
Naturally, the focus of population policies in different countries depending on their demographic challenges. So in countries with a very high natural population growth it aims to decrease. An example of a country more or less successfully carrying out demographic policy, is the people's Republic of China. Many experts believe that, thanks to good policies, over the past 20 years of the 20th century, the Chinese will be born on 200 million less. But with the current, relatively modest (below the world average) rate of natural increase in 2000, the projected 1.3 billion. Thus, the future Millennium, China will meet with the amount of population, twice as large a hypothetical numbers 700 million, which experts believe is ideal for that State, taking into account the size, resources and the environment. Natural resources and economic potential of the country, as suppose scientists are able to feed only 1.5 billion people — that figure will reach China until 2044 g.
The essence of the strategic policy of China in the area of demographics, "every family has one child (with the exception of some autonomous regions, Tibet, Inner Mongolia, etc.). In addition, stimulated by later marriage, delayed the birth of offspring and increase intervals between births. Population policy includes virtually all of the above measures, notably economic and administrative. Penalties and rewards are at the mercy of the local administration. The only child in the family, especially for late marriage, gives an advantage in obtaining housing; It is easier to make in kindergarten, it will be easier to get a job.
Equally urgent is the purposeful population policy for India, whose population is rapidly approaching an astronomical figure is 1 billion people. Only in the 20th century, its population has tripled, and since independence, appeared as the "second India". The slogan here is: "one family — two of the child", but the success of population policies were much more modest than in China. This is due in part to the use of violent methods (including sterilization), too, to some extent, the idea of "family planning".