Cleaning and disinfection of wastewater

The methods used in the world for the treatment and disposal of wastewater, various: 1) mechanical; 2) biological (biochemical); 3) physico-chemical; 4) decontamination (disinfection measures).
The mechanical method is the most available and suitable for removal of undissolved and colloidal particles in organic or mineral origin. It uses sand catchers, storage tank, etc. Mechanical purification often precedes a biological, or biochemical. Biochemical methods are based on the use of mikroorganizmovmineralizatorov, which, by propagating, process complex organic compounds, converting them into simple harmless minerals. Thus, it is possible to completely get rid of organic contamination remaining after mechanical cleaning. (Facilities for biological and biochemical sewage treatment usually fall into two types: a) biological ponds, fields, and filter fields of irrigation; b) high-intensity artificial biological filters.) The physicochemical methods of cleaning include the electrolysis of water, coagulation, extraction, etc. The same disinfectant method clear.
All of these methods of wastewater treatment have two ultimate objectives. One of them is the destruction of pollutants and remove products from the water, another extract from waste water of some valuable substances. However, even with a perfect clean-up some of the dissolved minerals remains. This water may be suitable for drinking after repeated dilution with pure water.
An effective method to control pollution of the hydrosphere is the implementation of water recycling and reuse in industrial enterprises. Such a technology, as well as the construction of facilities for cleaning and use of waste water, require substantial investment and operating costs. However, smart and enterprising leaders does not save.