The thinning of the ozone layer of the atmosphere

As you know, life on Earth appeared only after a protective ozone layer of the Earth. For many centuries, nothing foretold trouble. However, in recent decades it has been noticed that since about 1975, the each spring over Antarctica formed the so-called ozone hole: the content of ozone in the stratosphere over the sixth continent is reduced to 50%.
Later the threat there and in the North — the ozone layer there has dropped by 10%, and this is directly related to the populous countries of Europe and North America.
Scientists believe that changing the ozone situation will certainly impact on the flora and fauna. Yields of some crops can dramatically drop. Changed conditions will have an impact and to micro-organisms — at the same plankton-mostly Stern marine life. Increasing doses of ultraviolet light can dramatically weaken the human immune system and cause many diseases (eye, skin cancer etc.).
What are the causes of ozone holes? There are different options of scientific explanations and predictions (you may blame the cycles in nature, may be this phenomenon not seen before, when there were no stations in Antarctica, or modern instruments, etc.). However, most authorities agree on one thing: the main reason for this concentration of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
This is a human-made substances and chemicals used in the manufacture of aerosols, hladigentov (in refrigerators), solvents, etc. their widespread use for several decades have not caused any trouble. In the lower atmosphere, they do not react to any chemical reaction and does not have a toxic effect. But it is precisely this "sluggishness" allows them to climb to the stratosphere.
As you know, stratospheric ozone is produced as a result of the effect of ultraviolet radiation on oxygen, but there are and the chlorine atoms in the "invading" chlorofluorocarbons, which destroy the ozone layer is most effective. The cycle begins with the fact that in the presence of a chlorine atom molecule ozone split with the formation of molecular oxygen and chlorine monoxide, followed by a new destructive cycle, "picked up" new oxygen atoms, chlorine "intensifies" the new stage of destruction.
So, the main "villain" thinning of the ozone layer as chlorofluorocarbons (freons). Until the last years of their production in the world has grown rapidly: one United States gave 50% of the total (about 1 million tons). That is why in the world there is a growing movement for full suspension of release of CFCs. In 1987 in Montreal took place. The first International Conference on the ozone layer, which had decided to reduce the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by the end of this century at 50%. But already two years later (in 1989) in London attended by representatives from 122 countries and demanded the immediate cessation of the production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
The complexity of the situation is that some countries (including India and China) require a donation of new Western technologies, as they could not accept the economic damage related to the dismantling of recently established (environmentally dirty) equipment.
There are other alternative (sometimes "polufantasticeskie") decision: the removal of polluting substances in the atmosphere using lasers, spraying artificial ozone from aircraft, which will have powerful generators of this gas, and so on, you just read that developing countries, particularly CHINA and India — at the international conferences on the ozone layer of the Earth have been accused of not wanting to "rebuild" and only change that established mass production of refrigeratorsTherefore, contribute significantly to the depletion of the ozone layer. But the statistics of the world demonstrates that CHINA produced 4.6 million refrigerators (1993), which is half that of the United States ', and the total contribution to China and India in global emissions to below 0.5% (!). And "shower" the contribution of India — the lowest in the world: every American on this measure is equivalent to 8150 Indians. This means that an equitable distribution of responsibility for emissions requires a differentiated approach to different States, excluding "the process of levelling out" and providing for fines and fees.
K. Kondratiev (Eurasia.-1995., no. 2).