From the microecosystems to global ecosystem

The global cycles of vital (biogenic) items fall in the biosphere into many smaller cycles, dedicated to local habitats of different biological communities. Functional systems, which include the community of living organisms and their environment, exercising more or less closed nutrient cycle, called environmental systems.
Sometimes as a synonym of ecosystems using the term "biogeocenoz", but more correctly seen as hierarchically elementary comprehensive ecosystem, consisting of the biotope and the biocenosis and dedicated to a specific territory. In fact any biogeocenoz is the ecosystem, but not every ecosystem is biogeocenozom.
In accordance with the submissions, in biological science, ecosystem based on food (trophic) chain. The main types of food chains-Gramma's and detritnaa. Pastoral food chain is called a number of living organisms, in which each species eats its predecessors on the circuit, and then himself is eaten. In detritnyh food chain organisms consume dead organic matter, decomposing it into more simple connectors, right down to the inorganic.
These views are extremely fair with respect to mikroekosistemam (for example, decaying tree trunk) or mezoekosistemam (for example, a pond or a forest). As for the makroekosistem and the global ecosystem (the biosphere "led" to a man), the "organization" of the food chain (particularly in view of the production of synthetic food) much harder.
So, the biosphere is the region of interaction between living and rigid substance on the planet — the largest Land ecosystem (global).