Key issues in the global environment

Analyzing the list of major global environmental change at the end of the 20th century (see para. 53), it can be concluded that the main problem today is the optimization of nature management is changing the strategic environmental management, continuous improvement, in order to overcome the negative consequences on a global scale. To resolve this problem, research is needed on environmental, technological and ekonomikopravovym areas.
1. as the biosphere is the guarantor of preservation of life, the main objective of the environmental research is to find ways and means to ensure normal conditions of life for present and future generations of mankind. There was a need to intensify study of the evolution of the biosphere, energy and mass in the biosphere, biological aspects of conservation, biosphere chemistry, etc.
2. technological direction is associated with the development of the optimal strategy for environmental management in the energy, industry, agriculture, forestry, urban development and other human activities. It is important to promote the introduction of environmental technologies related to the reduction of energy, material and water-capacious production, integrated management of natural resources, utilization of industrial wastes and so on.
3. Ekonomikopravovoe direction is associated with the study of methods for the economic valuation of natural resources, development of economic capacity to facilitate meeting the requirements of the protection of the natural environment and natural resource management, improving the scientific basis of environmental legislation and so on.
Of course, this is generalized, specific areas of research as priority areas for environmental development can be called tens. Look at some of them.
1. the study of the global dynamics of the vegetation cover of the planet, especially forests. Need reliable information on the impact of continued deforestation on global climate, biogeochemical cycles, ecosystem dynamics and biodiversity.
2. research on the problem of the greenhouse effect. Discussions on this matter have been, as the analysis of observational data for the surface temperatures of the last century did not give clear evidence of the greenhouse effect in raising the global mean temperature. However, the proven fact growth concentration of such greenhouse gases as methane and hlorftoruglerodnye, the Sog compound, and for the science it is important to know the script of their future behavior. "
3. obtaining new results in the study of ozone holes. The existing theoretical models of the dynamics of the ozone layer is far from perfect. Meanwhile, over Antarctica where the ozone hole is limited by sustained vihreobraznymi winds, it covered an area of 22 million km2 (mid-90s). In the mid-and high latitudes of the northern hemisphere atmospheric circulation is unstable, so here are a kind of ozone minidyry. The ozone-depleted air masses usually arise in the area of Greenland and often pass over Russia, ozone content in them compared with an average is reduced to 1.5 times. However, changing the usual for the biosphere natural conditions at 25% could spell disaster.
4. investigation of the processes of desertification and increased aridization in recent decades. In the scientific literature of desertification in arid zone is characterized as the last stage of a slow degradation of the environment as the result of a complex interaction of natural, prirodnoantropogennyh and the purely technological factors. Expanding the agriculture, livestock and more intensive development of natural forage, the introduction of intensive industrial agricultural practices in arid areas without proper study of the mechanism of recovery of fertility are the main "trigger" factors of desertification processes.
5. scientific understanding of the ongoing process of toxication farmland pesticides, herbicides, nitrates and other types of fertilizers. Whether from an environmental point of view to an infinite increase in yields of crops? According to some agroekologov of the world, guaranteed, stable yields without "overexploitation" of soil resources — the path to environmental sustainability of agricultural landscapes.
6. a study of ocean biological productivity and interactions in the ocean-climate ". It is first of all about obtaining and analysing data on the content of chlorophyll (phytoplankton) in the upper layer of the oceans and the dynamics of its biomass in General, as well as on the use of satellite information.
7. design-related risk of radioactive pollution of the planet, with the consequences of the NUCLEAR POWER PLANT. The fact of the matter is that radioactive contamination accompanies all links of the complex management of Atomic Energy: mining and processing of uranium, producing a fuel cell, the NUCLEAR POWER PLANT, storage and fuel regeneration. Add to this pollution of groundwater tritium virtually all around the plant. But perhaps the main environmental hazard from normal operating NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS, the pollution of plutonium. Prior to the start of production on Earth was no more than 50 kg of the sverh?adovitogo element. For now, nuclear power plants have already several hundred tons of plutonium — quantity, it is sufficient to poison all life on the planet. Some environmentalists argue that modern nuclear energy should be phased out immediately, if only because of the inevitable results of plutonium. We remind that the half-life of radioactive strontium and cesium is tens of years, and plutonium — tens of thousands of years, i.e. virtually forever.
8. study of the dynamics of the ice cover of the Arctic and Antarctic in connection with changes in sea level, humidity near the surface and in a free atmosphere, vegetation condition of the planet and so on.
9. study of the current AIDS epidemic (on an equal basis with others, especially cancer), the search for reliable prevention and treatment methods.
10. the stabilization of the world population, taking into account the experience of developed States. For example, in India (State of Kerala) made almost zero population growth.