Oil security

To save energy, the leading capitalist countries have made huge strides in 1970-1990 Gg. the GDP grew by 60%, but this was a small increase in primary energy consumption (25-27).
Ways of energy saving have been varied:

  • production of more fuel-efficient cars, consuming 7-8 litres of petrol (instead of 15 l) at 100 km;
  • improvements in public services;
  • structural changes in the economy (growth of less energy-intensive industries, the development of new technologies);

— the development of nuclear energy (for 1974-1990 Gg. average annual production of electricity grew by 3.9%, while its production at the plant is at 13.4 per cent).
In addition, changes in the oil market have stimulated the development of oil and gas in new areas (North Sea, Alaska). The OPEC member countries now account for 38% of global production and about 60 percent of oil exports, the inside of this organization had many controversies related to quotas on oil production. In Western countries, not OPEC, control of the oil market.
The only country in the world, fully secure energy at that time — the USSR — did not hold any of these measures, increased production and consumption of oil (in 1988 he reached the peak of extraction — 624 million tonnes and moved into first place in the world for this indicator). Part of the oil has gone to the Western market, part (concessional) was delivered to the COMECON member countries.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the loss of Russia's largest and world's largest exporter of crude oil strategy the West has changed. United States prefer today some of the oil (up to 300 million tonnes, i.e. 40% of consumption) to import. Western Europe has not reached the level of self-sufficiency (although the United Kingdom and Norway, with the biggest and the productive sector in the North Sea, have become major exporters), but changed its import sources for more reliable (Africa, North Sea). Japan continues to import oil and gas from the Middle East and now Australia. At sharp fluctuations of oil prices in a bid for this strategy can vary, but the main quest "wouldn't" their resources using promising oil sources abroad, in particular in the CIS countries.

Oil production by countries and regions in 1994,.

Country of production, million t
Saudi Arabia 402.7
United States 393.1
Russia 342 (1993 g.)
Iran 180.8
Mexico 156.8
PRC 146.1
Norway 130.3

So, for the opening of the prospective fields in Northern TimanoPecorskogo basin and on the shelf of the Barents Sea (more than 1 billion tons) showed interest in almost all major oil companies of the West: Shell, Exxon and Texaco, Chevron and so on even greater resonance, called "project of the century" — the development of oil fields on the Caspian Sea shelf. To implement an agreement between Azerbaijan and Western oil consortium (though it includes Russian "Lukoil"), however, it agreed with Russia and dangerous environmentally.
Vast oil reserves on the Caspian Sea shelf, adjacent to the coasts of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan (an estimated 5 to 7 million tons of oil), attract and OPEC member countries (such as Iran). The development of these oil-rich areas of the OPEC members would regain its position in the world oil market.
Meanwhile, the United States is projected to run out of its oil only in the 10 years to 2000, the volume of imports into the United States will more than double their own prey. Japan and GERMANY have no oil reserves. All this suggests that in the first decade of the 21st century, oil prices will increase by 4-5 times. This means that the oil resources of Russia (about 10% of the world's proven reserves and 25% of the undiscovered) is a chance for a future economic recovery.