The energy problem

Today in the world of fuel while producing power plant work nonstop and the world economy is in ubystrausemsa mode, but the energy problem remains one of the most pressing.
This is due to, firstly, the growing gap between the high growth of energy-intensive industries developed (and in the near term and developing) countries and nevozobnovimyh reserves of energy resources (oil, gas, coal); Secondly, the negative environmental impacts of energy development while maintaining the traditional structure of the fuel and energy balance (TEB), the sudden prevalence of polluting fuels (about 85% of TEB). Both these aspects are closely linked, as application of renewable (alternative) sources of energy could significantly ease tensions and environmental and resource in the world.
The rapidly developing economy at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries requires greater energy costs. Science warns that if current levels of energy consumption explored reserves of fossil fuels on Earth will last for about 150 years, including oil, gas, 35 on the 50-and-over 425 years of coal (the starting point is a 1990 g.). Sometimes these forecasts made by various scholars, a few are not the same, but only a few that don't naturally gives humanity the additional optimism. Thus, the limited natural hydrocarbon reserves are today the core of global energy issues.
Of course, as the search works with reliable supplies of oil, gas, coal, oil shale is increasing, but that is little comfort. Around the world are moving to develop deposits of raw materials, less productive or located in remote regions with difficult natural conditions, which greatly increased the production. So, operation of oil drilling platforms in the ocean is much more expensive than the richest deposits of the Middle East. In many countries the massive drilling for oil and gas are already at depths of 5-6 km. Resource depletion leads to develop resource-saving policy, use of recycled materials.
For the first time on the energy problem in the mid-1970s, when the economic crisis broke out in the West. For many years, oil remains the cheapest and affordable fuel. Thanks to its low cost of energy for a long time has not changed, although its consumption is growing very fast. Arab oil-producing countries have benefited from the sale of oil as a political weapon "in the fight for their rights and have dramatically increased its prices. Thus, the energy crisis were the causes not only economic, but also political, social. The crisis marked the end of an era of cheap energy sources. It questioned the use of oil and gas as energy resources of the future. As a reminder, these resources are the most valuable raw material for the chemical industry.
So today is the energy of the world is based on non-renewable energy sources — combustible organic and mineral resources, as well as the energy of rivers and the atom. As a major energy resources are oil, gas and coal. The immediate Outlook for energy development linked to the search for a better balance of energy to trying to reduce the share of liquid fuel.
Mankind today has entered a transitional period — from energy, based on organic natural resources, which are limited to energy in a virtually inexhaustible based (nuclear power, solar radiation, heat of the Earth, etc.). This period is characterized by the development of energy-saving technologies and full energy savings.