Russia's energy problem

After the collapse of the Soviet Union dominated the energy problems (energy consumption economy, obsolete power equipment, a price increase of basic energy sources, the problem of eliminating the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster), supplemented by new, less complex. Namely:

  • contraction of the coal base ("cease to exist" Karaganda basin and Basin);

is a sharp decline in coal and oil;
is the threat of disintegration of the unified energy system;

  • payment for transit of gas to Western Europe through the territory of Ukraine;

orientation fuel complex of Turkmenistan, rich in gas and oil, to foreign markets outside CIS;
— energy supply difficulties in areas that previously were receiving fuel and energy of Ukraine (North Caucasus).
Need to develop a new energy concept. Over the next decade in the energy strategy of Russia, priority is given to the gas industry (for 2010, the gas output should increase by half). Considerable attention is paid and the nuclear power industry. Its development involves two stages: the first is the modernization of the industry, the second is capacity building, which by 2010, the need to increase by almost half.

The structure of electricity generation in Russia on the types of power plants

Power output,% 1990 2000 (forecast) 2010 (forecast)
TPP 73.8 72.8 71.0
HES 16.1 13.8 13.2

As can be seen from table 13, the share of the TPP remains almost unchanged, the share of HYDROPOWER PLANTS will grow significantly, and only the share of nuclear energy.
In the European part of Russia will build a new large THERMAL coal. This is due not only to the dramatically increased range of movement, but also environmentally harmful impact of coal-fired POWER PLANTS and a very high investments in pollution control equipment make them uncompetitive. Collapse of oil extraction and the need to export to obtain hard currency made it unlikely and the construction of a new large THERMAL POWER STATIONS to fuel oil, in addition to oil-producing areas in Western Siberia (they are now more than 70% of production in Russia) and on the European North.
In the European part of Russia is very high level of utilization of the hydropower potential is 42.4%, even in Eastern Siberia is 27.1%. But in some areas of environmental releases hydro power load: so in the Volga region, Cheboksary, Kuybyshev and power of the Saratov HYDROELECTRIC STATION is 5000 MW and all thermal power plants-7400 Mw, with the bulk of their runs on gas and heating oil (for coal stations accounted for only 0.5% of capacity).
Thus stable oil production and nuclear power are the backbone of the energy economy of Russia.
Nuclear power provides 12% of all electricity in Russia and is virtually the only industry not snizivsej production during the economic downturn. Of course, the Chernobyl disaster has dramatically slowed the putting into operation of new NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS and has made a priority of strengthening their security, especially on the territory of the former USSR are 16 units with reactors of the Chernobyl type. Modernization of these and other stations is carried out by the Commission of the European communities.
However, an alternative to the development of nuclear energy is not. Pay 40000 Mw of electrical power, which would have lost with the failure of the country's nuclear power industry is to build 10 new major POWER PLANTS to extract and burn every year and 170-180 million tons of coal, with all the attendant environmental consequences. To the same company in the West of the unreliability of Soviet reactors called and competition in the global market of nuclear equipment.