Secondary resources

Transition from the era of "wastefulness" resource to the epoch of rational resource use associated with two main points. The first of these is that the energy crisis of the 1970s has given strong impetus to the development of energy-efficient technology, helped to start the transition of the world economy from being extensive to intensive. In many branches of material production and non-production sphere, there has been a marked decline in energy costs, resulting in savings of hydrocarbon raw materials.
The second point is associated with a reduction in the "direct" resource waste. So, from the huge volume of extracted from the subsoil year planet rock mass on the production of the finished product is not more than 20%. As a result over the years in the dumps have accumulated hundreds of billions of tons of different rocks. On these technological "cemeteries" are also billions of tons of ash-slag wastes from power stations and steel mills. Many of the overburden and waste processing fossil raw materials suitable for the production of a variety of metals, chemical products, building materials, bricks, cement, lime, etc.
In this regard, one of the major changes in world resursoobespecenii is connected with the transition to widespread use of recycled materials, which becomes a new source of raw materials "of the world economy. Some scientists predict the inevitable advent of negotiable (i.e. repeated) use of resources in the economy the main raw materials will become waste and natural resources will play a role as backup sources of supply.
When the revolving use of non-renewable resources as if transformed into renewable energy. The secondary raw materials annually, "reproduced" in extended form, rates of growth of volumes of waste in the industrialized countries more than doubled production and dynamics of natural population growth. In the early 1990s, the technological "cemeteries" annually in the United States: grew by 4.5 billion tons, in Western Europe at 2 billion tons, in Japan, at 1.3 billion tons, which corresponds to the economic power, not only States, but also the age of their economies.
Deep recycling of secondary raw materials promotes low-and non-waste technologies. Of course, waste-free technology is the ideal model, which is a modern production. Achieve 100% avoidance of waste practically impossible. Therefore, the amount of more than 90% is considered to be a zero waste, and 75-90% is maloothodnomu. The establishment of such enterprises is a lengthy process requiring a series of technological, economic, organizational, and other tasks.