Backwardness and geographical environment

Among the reasons for the backwardness of developing countries are often referred to as geographical factors of particular interest in this case. For example, the reference to the adverse psychological effects of hot climate, as well as on "volatility" tropical soils, which allegedly crippling the development of agriculture, and through him, and industrial development. Such "neodeterministskie" ideas in fact do not contain anything new. Yet the French philosopher Montesquieu of the 17th century in his famous treatise "the spirit of laws", while questioning the teleologiceskuu concept, explaining the socioeconomic history of the "will of God", had gone to the other extreme, taking the position of a vulgar geografizma. He claimed that the hot climate, influencing the physical nature of man and his spiritual warehouse, leads to the development of slavery, while the temperate climate, has a beneficial effect on the intellect, promotes the formation of energetic and strong-willed nature, determines the progressive form of Government, and so on.
Undoubtedly, work in hot climates more physically difficult, but it should not be forgotten that ancient civilizations have evolved in warm and not have a temperate climate. In addition, there are many States in the hot climate, "climbers" on top of the world "table of ranks".
And absolutely unconvincing look sometimes encountered in the literature references to poverty and depletion of natural resources in developing countries. It is well known that among the backward countries quite a few that significantly outperform the mineral?nosyr?evomu potential of the vysokoindustrial?nye country.
Therefore, when assessing the causes and benchmarks socio-economic backwardness of geographical factors can barely be regarded as principled argument. The content of this category is much broader, deeper and covers a diverse range of internal and external relations: economic, technical, social, cultural, political.