The roots of underdevelopment

What are the reasons for the backwardness of developing countries? The responses to this question in our "doperestroecnoj" literature there is a great deal of confusion.
One of the many reasons - the colonial past of the country - too absolutised, while underestimated others, such as those associated with stage, that is. E. Historical delay their development. Screener "class blinders" domestic science neglected the study of cultural, ideological, philosophical, sotsialnopsihologicheskih factors that, along with the material, brakes and continue to hinder the process of renovation of a developing society.
So, many people in Asia and Africa have developed their own system of values. Their traditional outlook is much less or in other forms focus on "the pursuit of success" than European or American worldview. In patriarchal traditions and customs have their sources and Eastern religions.
The number of poor people in developing countries are not adequately contribute to familiarizing the person to an active industrial activity. For example, Islam, with its idea of ??predestination, the arbitrariness of power and lack of security for private enterprise weakly stimulates the production activity, inhibits the individual efforts. Islam as well as Hinduism and Buddhism, supposedly, do not encourage and desire for personal prosperity. Although real life does not always confirm this point of view, one thing is certain: they have been studied enough.

In the vast world literature devoted to the study of the causes of underdevelopment are usually identified internal and external barriers to the development, which are closely intertwined.
Among the internal causes of backwardness of the developing countries, the most frequently mentioned:
1) The "stage-wise" lag traditional Eastern societies that have an intrinsic mechanism of reproduction and the evolution of their own laws;
2) the incompatibility of traditional Eastern societies (especially community historically established institutions) with the classical market economy;
3) the extremely high rate of annual population growth (doubling its size over 20-25 years), a higher rate of food production;
4) the continued conservation multistructure (heterogeneity) of the local economy;
5) mistakes and miscalculations leaders of developing countries in the selection and implementation of a strategy of social and economic development (in particular, the priority development of heavy industry, industrialization, heedless of the agricultural sector).

Among the external factors retardation are more likely to stand out:
1) colonialism and its consequences;
2) exemption currently a large part of the surplus product, which is carried in the economic centers of countries with highly developed market economy;
3) destructive competition for the underdeveloped countries in the world market price ratios which do not correspond to the actual ratio of value emerging in the conditions of the "open economy" in developing countries;
4) asymmetric interdependence of developing and developed countries, resulting in the emergence of the economic crisis in the first is not due to the accumulation of the contradictions of their own reproductive process, but because of the economic turmoil in the second.