North-South: the problem of underdevelopment

Key concepts in the analysis of the global problem of underdevelopment are "social development" and "social progress", which are often treated as synonyms. However, the identification of these concepts is not always legitimate. Social development is not necessarily the same progress: it revealed upward, downward, and circular movements, as well as the stagnation (i.e. "marking time"), when the story, according to Hegel, not moves forward. In any case, for the analysis of common problems of social development and social progress, you must at least have a clear criteria.
One point of view in the interpretation of the criterion of social progress is reduced to the absolute of certain characteristics of the productive forces (their level, condition, rate of development, and so on. D.). The second focuses on the importance of considering the mode of production of material goods, ie. E. Based on the formation approach. And finally, the third point of view, the most shared by the scientific community of the world, such a criterion relates to the development, and the increasing complexity of enrichment material and spiritual needs of the person, an extension of his freedom.
Here are a few non-standard example of how to synthesizing all three points of view: specific Vologda (Arkhangelsk, Kostroma, and so on. Etc..) Farmer feels too little joy from the fact that the country has space ships, nuclear submarines, walking-Loader that she was trying to build a humane socialist or democratic society, if he does not enjoy the achievements of civilization and progress, and barely making ends meet. The process of "complexity and enrichment of his material and spiritual needs" has been too slow.
In the Russian and world literature is a global problem associated with backwardness holds the least developed countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, whose position is disturbing, and some even tragic. Poverty, hunger and chronic malnutrition, high infant mortality, mass epidemics and more accompany the lives of people in these countries. In most of them in the foreseeable future is not seen even the prospects of a radical change in the situation. Increases rather than decreases the gap between the former colonies and former colonial powers. Increases and the economic dependence of developing countries on the "privileged" nations, which takes many forms - technological, financial, trade. As of mid-90s the external debt of the "third world" far exceeded $ 1 trillion., And continues to grow rapidly increased their dependence on food imports.
A particularly acute problem for the international community are the so-called "superpoor" of the country (more than 30, and the population is 13% of the world: Burundi, Burkina Faso, Mali, Haiti and others.). According to official UN data, the standard of living in these countries is below the minimum acceptable standards of all. In socio-economic respect, they have long been bankrupt, and without the support of industrialized countries they can not cope with their problems.
Very often, the global problem of underdevelopment is viewed through the prism of relations between North and South, more precisely, the rich North and the poor South (that is what has been the basis for the formulation of this topic). Of course, the poor citizens are found in the most affluent countries, but the poverty here is an exception to the general rule. In this regard, the literature sometimes distinguishes between the concepts of "backwardness" and "poverty." It has been suggested that the backwardness - a state, an intrinsic property of many developing countries, while the signs of poverty may be specific to individual sections of the population and highly developed countries. Thus, poor poamerikanski - a person whose income is below the officially recognized poverty: about 3150 dollars. Annually. (This amount does not include: food stamps, or as they are called in the United States, "food stemps" benefits on housing, subsidies for medical care and other benefits provided to low-income families.) Pogaityanski poor man - it is something quite different, for his American poor, living in their own homes, these seem to be the Rockefellers.