Global investigation of Technogenesis

The uncontrolled growth of population and economy has not only already has regional implications, but has led to global change. Prediction comes true in the Vernadsky to make mankind because, on scales comparable to geological forces, although the noosphere (mind layer) can only roughly estimate the importance and danger of these processes, and especially not able to accurately predict their course and consequences.
The main effects of the ongoing technogenesis have a pronounced global importance.
Undoubtedly, the strongest impact on the global ecological environment has such a branch of material production of energy, especially given the dynamics of its development. Global energy consumption, according to the World Energy Council, may increase in 2020 by 50-75%, even with an increase in fuel efficiency and power. By the way, there are opportunities to do so: the "Big Seven" after the start of the energy crisis were able to implement a number of energy-saving measures, and since the mid 70's GDP growth in these countries is much faster than the consumption of primary energy sources, further reduce emissions of SOG, NO2, SO2 and others. developing countries, consumption of primary energy sources grew rapidly.
Significantly reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is possible, as is known, or through energy conservation, or the use of alternative, non-polluting energy sources, or due to the development of nuclear energy. If we proceed from the real opportunities that today is the first path may be acceptable
mainly in Eastern Europe and the CIS, as Western countries and Japan have virtually exhausted their potential, while developing countries have concerned only the quantitative growth of the nation's energy. The second way is also unlikely to in the coming decades radically improve the environment. According to reports, the contribution of renewable energy sources (excluding hydropower) by 2000 will amount to no more than 3%, which means that in the first decades of the next century of fossil fuels will account for about 90% of total energy consumption.
Thus, for the foreseeable future, the chances of alternative power is not as great as it is stated in many popular futuristic works. Here, for example, they are evaluated in Russia. It is clear that the savings of 9 million tons of fuel - a paltry results, practically "subtle" change in pressure on the environment.

Volumes of substitution of fossil fuels in Russia by types of alternative renewable energy sources, million tons of fuel equivalent

The AIDS epidemic, the growing number of cancer, etc.
Drug addiction, substance abuse, alcoholism, etc.

Resources 1993 1994 1995 2000 2005 2010
hydropower 0.7 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 3.0
Geothermal energy 0.3 0.4 0.7 1.0 2.0 5.0
Biomass Energy 0.3 1.0 1.4 1.7 2.4 4.8
Wind Energy 0.01 0.08 0.3 1.0 1.5 3.0
Solar energy 0.0015 0.0015 0.15 2.9 6.2 7.5
Low-grade heat 0.055 0.073 0.2 0.9 2.5 4.9
Total 1.37 2.35 3.95 9.0 16.6 28.2

A list of major global environmental changes at the end of the XX century.
However, most real third way - increasing the share of nuclear energy.

If you look at the data in Table 20, it appears that in environmental terms, nuclear power is the cleanest. After the Chernobyl disaster, this approach would be more lightweight. Even partial liquidation of its consequences only in Belarus will cost, according to expert estimates, in 16 annual budget. There are problems of nuclear and radiation safety, radioactive waste neutralization, conversion of nuclear weapons.
Let us consider a few more such display global technogenesis as massive deforestation on the planet. Their disappearance and degradation are linked to the following factors:
1) carried out on a large scale industrial wood blanks that are rarely accompanied by corresponding work on reforestation;
2) the expansion of the scope and areas of billets of wood fuel, especially in developing countries;
3) increasing demographic pressure, "expansion" of urban and rural settlements;
4) displacement of vast areas of natural forest monoculture artificial plantations - plantations of rubber, oil palm, and so on. N .;
5) The maintenance in less developed countries (primarily in the states of sub-Saharan Africa), shifting cultivation, including podsechnoognevogo type;
6) the conversion of large forest areas in the pasture for a large commercial livestock (especially in South America);
7) overgrazing in tropical dry forests, xerophytic woodlands and kolyuchekustarnikovyh formations;
8) increasing impact factors of industrial origin;
9) increased recreational use of the forests, as well as expansion of hunting.
It is obvious that these factors affect differentially depending on the type of countries and territories. Some of them actually are inherent only to developing countries (overgrazing, practice podsechnoognevogo agriculture and so on. Etc..), While in the industrialized countries, the main factor of forest degradation is by far the industrial factor (commercial timber harvesting, acid rain, etc..).
A very special role in the modern world are playing tropical forest formations. It is known that the forest cover of the Earth - one of the most important battery of living matter in the biosphere, holding a number of chemical elements and water; he actively interacts with soil, hydrosphere and atmosphere, determines the oxygen and the carbon balance. All of these functions are most strongly associated with tropical forest. This is one of the most complex ecosystems on the planet, where the climate, soil, flora and fauna are the components of a single, highly complex, natural complex. Many scientists argue that the rainforest nevozobnovim and irreparable (and dies as a single organism, as "a huge magnificent beast").
Rainforests are the richest in the world biome, comprising about half of all species of terrestrial fauna and flora - huge stock of genetic resources (only the number of species of trees there around 5000, while in the forests of Western Europe - only about 250 species). That tropical forest formations recognized center of evolutionary activity in the world and their disappearance may disappear huge sphere potential of human knowledge. Meanwhile, recent satellite images showed that the tropical rain belt, forests around the globe virtually no more! It broke up into separate arrays, the main of which are located in the basins of the Amazon and the Congo.

You can specifically talk about the geo-ecological, socio-ecological and economic functions of tropical forests. First among them is primarily in the absorption, accumulation and release of CO2, O2, and other chemical elements.

The total production of radioactive fuel for comments; absorbing aerosols and noise; absorption, accumulation and release of water; absorption and conversion of radiation and thermal energy; climate regulation, and so on. d. Evaluation socio-ecological functions is ambiguous due to climatic discomfort tropical rainforest, which is not always conducive to "habitation" in this environment. Finally, the economic functions associated with exceptionally high quality tropical wood with beautiful texture, wide color gamut, relative ease of processing.
So massive clearing of tropical forests - one of the most telling indicators in characterizing technogenesis. Another summary measure can serve as a specific power production (as mentioned above). According to the rough estimates, during the development of mankind, since the New Stone Age, it has grown no less than 5000 times. (It is assumed that the energy needs of humanity in 2000, 3 times higher than the level of 1970) Less impressive, but a more objective picture of the dynamics of one aspect technogenesis gives characteristic changes in global land use. In almost all countries of the world are increasing the area of ??built-up land, expanding technological territory.
In terms of emissions of greatest interest to characterize technogenesis are chemical compounds of carbon (primarily carbon monoxide - carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide). Because these compounds are produced mainly by the burning of fuel, the volume of their emissions is closely correlated with the level of industrial development of the country. Among other indicators, we note a reduction in biodiversity.